Level III: Triadic Restructuring (TR)


Triadic Restructuring (TR) is a method of restructuring or re-patterning that encompasses an array of techniques which occur in three-person and larger systems. Thus, TR utilizes techniques which alter process, structure, hierarchy, and function of  triads and family systems at domain Level III (triadic-relational) of the total ecological system. Viewing the system using an increasingly macroscopic lens, TR techniques tend to focus on dyads which are unstable having engaged a third-person to stabilize the dyad. Whereas, DR is concerned with self-other configurations, TR emphasizes a dyad + another. These techniques are primarily derived from family systems approaches but may also be used individually. Triangular configurations may exist in multiple configurations, both generationally and muti-generationally.

A SAMPLE LIST OF TECHNIQUES  (Go to Psychotherapedia for a more complete listing)

Relational triadic restructuring:

  • Redefining boundaries (Minuchin (1981)
  • Paradoxical prescriptions (Selvini-Pallazoli M. et. al. 1978)
  • Paradoxical predictions (Weeks and L’Abate, 1982; Allen, 2003)
  • Differentiation of Self in Presence of One’s Family of Origin (Bowen, 1978)
  • Externalizing Patterns of Interaction (Zimmerman & Dickerson, 1996)
  • Pretend Techniques (Madanes, 1981)
  • Animal Attribution Story-telling Technique (Arad, 2004)
  • Family Puppet Interviews (Irwin & Malloy, 1975)
  • Family Sculpting (Satir & Baldwin, 1983)

Cognitive-Behavioral triadic restructuring:

  • Letter Writing (Epston, 1994)
  • Shaping Schwitzgebel & Kolb, 1964)
  • Token Economies (Baer & Sherman, 1969)
  • Contingency Contracting (Stuart, 1971)
  • Contingency Management (Schwitzgebel, 1967)
  • Time-Out (Rimm & Masters, 1974)